Release of TNF-α and IL-1β from microglia following the neutralization of M-CSF or CSF-1R, or the administration of M-CSF. None of the above had a significant effect on cytokine release in the groups without glycated albumin (GA) stimulation. The neutralization of M-CSF (1 μg/mL) or CSF-1R (1 μg/mL) suppressed TNF-α and IL-1β release in the experimental group (cells treated with 250 μg/mL GA for 24 h). Treatment with 100ng/mL M-CSF augmented the GA-induced release of TNF-α and IL-1β. One-way ANOVA was performed, followed by post-hoc analysis. *, P < 0.05; **, P < 0.001, compared with the control group.