Effects of insulin, leucine and leucine + insulin treatments on proteins’ phosphorylation. Time-series expression profiles showing average and standard deviation of the data normalized to their time 0′ value and expressed as phosphorylated/total ratios under insulin (red), leucine (black) and leucine + insulin (blue) stimulus. Stars indicate significant p-values of t-tests performed on single time point for each treatment vs. the baseline. Triangles indicate significant p-values of t-tests performed on single time point for insulin vs. leucine + insulin treatment. Representative Western blots of total and phosphorylated AKT, GSK3β and ERK proteins are shown in the lowest right panel.